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Van Buren

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Van Buren may refer to:

Questions & Answers

  • What did Martin Van Buren do as president?

    What challenges did Martin Van Buren face as president and how did he deal with them? Was he a good president?

    Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States. He was a key organizer of the Democratic Party, a dominant figure in the Second Party System of American politics, and the first president who was not of English, Irish, or Scottish descent. He is also the only president not to have spoken English as his first language, but rather grew up speaking Dutch. He was the first of a series of eight presidents between Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln who served one term or less. He also was one of the central figures in developing modern political organizations. As Andrew Jackson's Secretary of State and then Vice President, he was a key figure in building the organizational structure for Jacksonian democracy, particularly in New York State. However, as a President, his administration was largely characterized by the economic hardship of his time, the Panic of 1837. Between the bloodless Aroostook War and the Caroline Affair, relations with Britain and its colonies in Canada also proved to be strained. Whether or not these are directly his fault, Van Buren was voted out of office after four years, with a close popular vote but a rout in the electoral vote. In 1848 he ran for president on third party ticket, the Free Soil party. Biography Van Buren was born in the village of Kinderhook, New York, approximately 25 miles south of Albany, the state capital, as the third of five children. His great-great-great-great-grandfather Cornelis had come to the New World in 1631 from the Netherlands. His father was Abraham Van Buren (February 17, 1737–April 8, 1817), a farmer and popular tavern-master. His mother was Maria Goes Hoes (February 27, 1743–February 16, 1817), a widow who had three sons from a previous relationship. Van Buren was educated at the common schools and at Kinderhook Academy. In 1796, he began the study of law, completing his preparation in 1802 in New York City, where he studied under William Peter van Ness. In 1803, he was admitted to the bar and continued an active and successful practice for 26 years. On February 21, 1807, he married Hannah Hoes, a maternal cousin. His practice made him wealthy and paved the way for his entrance into politics. New York politics after 1800, the year of the election of Thomas Jefferson and the downfall of the Federalists, were particularly intense and wretched. The Democratic-Republicans were divided into three factions: followers of George Clinton (and later of his nephew, De Witt Clinton), Robert R. Livingston, and Aaron Burr. Federalist control after 1799 depended upon coalition with one or other of these groups. Van Buren, who allied himself early with the Clintonians, was surrogate of Columbia County from 1808 until 1813, when he was removed. In 1812, he entered the state Senate, and he also became a member of the Court for the Correction of Errors, the highest court in New York until 1847. Early political career New York State Politics Van Buren's birthplaceAs a member of the state Senate, he supported the War of 1812 and drew up a classification act for the enrollment of volunteers. He broke with DeWitt Clinton in 1813 and tried to find a way to oppose Clinton's plan for the Erie Canal in 1817. Van Buren supported a bill that raised money for the canal through state bonds, and the bill quickly passed through the legislature with the help of his Tammany Hall compatriots. When the 96-mile stretch of the Erie Canal from Utica to Syracuse, New York opened in 1819, Van Buren tried to take credit away from Clinton and keep it for himself. His supporters guaranteed money for the canal in 1821, and they drove Clinton from the governor's office. Van Buren's attitude towards slavery at the moment was shown by his vote, in January 1820, for a resolution opposing the admission of Missouri as a slave state (though he himself was a slave owner). In the same year, he was chosen a presidential elector. It is at this point that Van Buren's connection began with so-called "machine politics". He was the leading figure in the "Albany Regency," a group of politicians who for more than a generation dominated much of the politics of New York and powerfully influenced those of the nation. The group, together with the political clubs such as Tammany Hall that were developing at the same time, played a major role in the development of the "spoils system" a recognized procedure in national, state and local affairs. Van Buren did not originate the system but gained the nickname of "Little Magician" for the skill with which he exploited it. He served also as a member of the state constitutional convention, where he opposed the grant of universal suffrage and tried to keep property requirements. U.S. Senate and National Politics In February 1821, Van Buren was elected to the United States Senate. Van Buren at first favored internal improvements and in 1824 proposed a constitutional amendment to authorize such undertakings. The next year, however, he took ground against them. He voted for the tariff of 1824 then gradually abandoned the protectionist position, coming out for "tariffs for revenue only." In the presidential election of 1824, Van Buren supported William H. Crawford and received the electoral vote of Georgia for vice-president, but he shrewdly kept out of the acrimonious controversy which followed the choice of John Quincy Adams as President. Van Buren had originally hoped to block Adams' victory by denying him the state of New York (the state was divided between Van Buren supporters who would vote for William H. Crawford and Adams' men). However, Representative Stephen Van Rensselear swung New York to Adams and thereby the 1824 Presidency. He recognized early the potential of Andrew Jackson as a presidential candidate. After the election, Van Buren sought to bring the Crawford and Jackson followers together and strengthened his control as a leader in the Senate. Always notably courteous in his treatment of opponents, he showed no bitterness toward either John Quincy Adams or Henry Clay, and he voted for Clay's confirmation as Secretary of State, notwithstanding Jackson's "corrupt bargain" charge. At the same time, he opposed the Adams-Clay plans for internal improvements and declined to support the proposal for a Panama Congress. As chairman of the Judiciary Committee, he brought forward a number of measures for the improvement of judicial procedure and, in May 1826, joined with Senator Thomas Hart Benton in presenting a report on executive patronage. In the debate on the "tariff of abominations" in 1828, he took no part but voted for the measure in obedience to instructions from the New York legislature—an action which was cited against him as late as the presidential campaign of 1844. Van Buren was not an orator, but his more important speeches show careful preparation and his opinions carried weight; the oft-repeated charge that he refrained from declaring himself on crucial questions is hardly borne out by an examination of his senatorial career. In February 1827, he was re-elected to the Senate by a large majority. He became one of the recognized managers of the Jackson campaign, and his tour of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia in the spring of 1827 won support for Jackson from Crawford. Calling it a "substantial reorganization of the old Republican party," Van Buren helped create a grassroots style of politicking that we often see today. At the state level, Jackson's committee chairmen would split up the responsibilities around the state and organize volunteers at the local level. "Hurra Boys" would plant hickory trees (in honor of Jackson's nickname, "Old Hickory") or hand out hickory sticks at rallies. Van Buren even had a New York journalist write a campaign piece portraying Jackson as a humble, pious man. "Organization is the secret of victory," an editor in the Adams camp wrote. "By the want of it we have been overthrown." In 1828, Van Buren was elected governor of New York for the term beginning on January 1, 1829, and resigned his seat in the Senate. Governor of New York Van Buren's tenure as NY governor is the second shortest on record, and nothing of note took place. The Jackson Cabinet On March 5, he was appointed by President Jackson as Secretary of State, an office which probably had been assured to him before the election, and he resigned the governorship. He was succeeded in the governorship by his Lieutenant Governor, Enos T. Throop, a member of the regency. As secretary of state, Van Buren took care to keep on good terms with the "kitchen cabinet," the group of politicians who acted as Jackson's advisers. He won the lasting regard of Jackson by his courtesies to Mrs. John H. Eaton (Peggy Eaton), wife of the Secretary of War, with whom the wives of the cabinet officers had refused to associate. He did not oppose Jackson in the matter of removals from office but was not himself an active "spoilsman". He skillfully avoided entanglement in the Jackson-Calhoun imbroglio. 1832 Whig cartoon shows Jackson carrying Van Buren into officeNo diplomatic questions of the first magnitude arose during Van Buren's service as secretary, but the settlement of long-standing claims against France was prepared and trade with the British West Indies colonies was opened. In the controversy with the Bank of the United States, he sided with Jackson. After the breach between Jackson and Calhoun, Van Buren was clearly the most prominent candidate for the vice-presidency. Vice-Presidency In December 1829, Jackson had already made known his own wish that Van Buren should receive the nomination. In April 1831, Van Buren resigned from his secretary of state position, though he did not leave office until June. In August, he was appointed minister to the Court of St. James (United Kingdom), and he arrived in London in September. He was cordially received, but in February, he learned that his nomination had been rejected by the Senate on January 25. The rejection, ostensibly attributed in large part to Van Buren's instructions to Louis McLane, the American minister to England, regarding the opening of the West Indies trade, in which reference had been made to the results of the election of 1828, was in fact the work of Calhoun, the vice-president. And when the vote was taken, enough of the majority refrained from voting to produce a tie and give Calhoun his longed-for "vengeance." No greater impetus than this could have been given to Van Buren's candidacy for the vice-presidency. After a brief tour on through Europe, Van Buren reached New York on July 5, 1832. In May, the Democratic convention, the first held by that party, had nominated him for vice-president on the Jackson ticket, despite the strong opposition to him which existed in many states. No platform was adopted because the widespread popularity of Jackson was being relied upon to succeed at the polls. His declarations during the campaign were vague regarding the tariff and unfavorable to the United States Bank and to nullification, but he had already somewhat placated the South by denying the right of Congress to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia without the consent of the slave states. Election of 1836 Main article: United States presidential election, 1836 It took Van Buren and his partisan friends a decade and a half to form the Democratic Party; many elements, such as the national convention, were borrowed from other parties in the Second Party System. In the election of 1832, the Jackson-Van Buren ticket won by a landslide. When the election of 1836 came up, Jackson was determined to make Van Buren, his personal choice, president in order to continue his legacy. Martin Van Buren's only competitors in the 1836 election were the Whigs, who were badly split into several regional candidates. William Henry Harrison hoped to receive the support of the Western voters, Daniel Webster had strength in New England, and Hugh Lawson White had support in the South. In May 1835, Van Buren was unanimously nominated by the Democratic convention at Baltimore. He expressed himself plainly on the questions of slavery and the bank at the same time voting, perhaps with a touch of bravado, for a bill offered in 1836 to subject abolition literature in the mails to the laws of the several states. Van Buren's presidential victory represented a broader victory for Jackson and the party. Presidency 1837-1841 [Policies Martin Van Buren announced his intention "to follow in the footsteps of his illustrious predecessor," and retained all but one of Jackson's cabinet. Van Buren had few economic tools to deal with the economic crisis of 1837. He succeeded in setting up a system of bonds for the national debt. His party was so split that his 1837 proposal for an "Independent Treasury" system did not pass until 1840. It gave the Treasury control of all federal funds and had a legal tender clause that required (by 1843) all payments to be made in legal tender rather than in state bank notes. But the act was repealed in 1841 and never had much impact. Foreign affairs were complicated when several states defaulted on their state bonds, London complained, and Washington explained it had no responsibility for those bonds. British authors such as Charles Dickens then denounced the American failure to pay royalties, leading to a negative press in Britain regarding the financial honesty of America. The Caroline Affair involved Canadian rebels using New York bases to attack the government in Canada. On December 29, 1837, Canadian government forces crossed the frontier into the US and burned the Caroline, which the rebels had been using. One American was killed, and an outburst of anti-British sentiment swept through the U.S. Van Buren sent the army to the frontier and closed the rebel bases. Van Buren tried to vigorously enforce the neutrality laws, but American public opinion favored the rebels. Boundary disputes in May brought Canadian and American lumberjacks into conflict. There was no bloodshed in this Aroostook War, but it further inflamed public opinion on both sides. In the Amistad Case Van Buren sided with the Spanish Government to return the kidnapped slaves. Also, the "Trail of Tears" Cherokee removal in 1838 from the states of Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, and North Carolina to the Oklahoma territory occurred. Van Buren took the blame for hard times, as Whigs ridiculed him as Martin Van Ruin. Van Buren's rather elegant personal style was also an easy target for Whig attacks, such as the Gold Spoon Oration. State elections of 1837 and 1838 were disastrous for the Democrats, and the partial economic recovery in 1839 was offset by a second commercial crisis in that year. Nevertheless, Van Buren controlled his party and was unanimously renominated by the Democrats in 1840. The revolt against Democratic rule led to the election of William Henry Harrison, the Whig candidate. In 1839, Joseph Smith, the founder of the Mormon Church visited Van Buren to plead for the U.S. to help roughly 40,000 Mormon settlers of Independence, Missouri, who had been attacked, killed, raped, and run out of the state from their lands (eventually settling in Utah). The Governor of Missouri, Lilburn Boggs, had issued an executive order on 27 October 1838, known as the "Extermination Order". It authorized Missourians to "exterminate" Mormons and encouraged them to do so. Smith and his party begged Van Buren to intercede for the Mormons. He reportedly told Smith, "Your cause is just, but I can do nothing for you. If I take up for you I shall lose the vote of Missouri." Administration and Cabinet OFFICE NAME TERM President Martin Van Buren 1837–1841 Vice President Richard M. Johnson 1837–1841 Secretary of State John Forsyth 1837–1841 Secretary of the Treasury Levi Woodbury 1837–1841 Secretary of War Joel Poinsett 1837–1841 Attorney General Benjamin Butler 1837–1838 Felix Grundy 1838–1840 Henry D. Gilpin 1840–1841 Postmaster General Amos Kendall 1837–1840 John M. Niles 1840–1841 Secretary of the Navy Mahlon Dickerson 1837–1838 James K. Paulding 1838–1841 Supreme Court appointments Van Buren appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States: John Catron - 1837 John McKinley - 1838 Peter Vivian Daniel - 1842 Later life Free Soil campaign bannerOn the expiration of his term, Van Buren retired to his estate, Lindenwald in Kinderhook, where he planned out his return to the White House. He seemed to have the advantage for the nomination in 1844; his famous letter of April 27, 1844, in which he frankly opposed the immediate annexation of Texas, though doubtless contributing greatly to his defeat, was not made public until he felt practically sure of the nomination. In the Democratic convention, though he had a majority of the votes, he did not have the two-thirds which the convention required, and after eight ballots his name was withdrawn. James K. Polk received the nomination instead. In 1848, he was nominated by two minor parties, first by the "Barnburner" faction of the Democrats, then by the Free Soilers, with whom the "Barnburners" coalesced. He won no electoral votes, but took enough votes in New York to give the state — and perhaps the election — to Zachary Taylor. In the election of 1860, he voted for the fusion ticket in New York which was opposed to Abraham Lincoln, but he could not approve of President Buchanan's course in dealing with secession and eventually supported Lincoln. After being bedridden with a case of pneumonia during the fall of 1861, Martin Van Buren died of bronchial asthma and heart failure at his Lindenwald estate in Kinderhook at 2:00 a.m. on July 24, 1862. He is buried in the Kinderhook Cemetery.

  • Can someone tell me about Martin Van buren?

    Political party political experience and his accomplishments and failures, i tried looking it up but i found little info.

    8. MARTIN VAN BUREN 1837-1841 Only about 5 feet, 6 inches tall, but trim and erect, Martin Van Buren dressed fastidiously. His impeccable appearance belied his amiability--and his humble background. Of Dutch descent, he was born in 1782, the son of a tavernkeeper and farmer, in Kinderhook, New York. As a young lawyer he became involved in New York politics. As leader of the "Albany Regency," an effective New York political organization, he shrewdly dispensed public offices and bounty in a fashion calculated to bring votes. Yet he faithfully fulfilled official duties, and in 1821 was elected to the United States Senate. By 1827 he had emerged as the principal northern leader for Andrew Jackson. President Jackson rewarded Van Buren by appointing him Secretary of State. As the Cabinet Members appointed at John C. Calhoun's recommendation began to demonstrate only secondary loyalty to Jackson, Van Buren emerged as the President's most trusted adviser. Jackson referred to him as, "a true man with no guile." The rift in the Cabinet became serious because of Jackson's differences with Calhoun, a Presidential aspirant. Van Buren suggested a way out of an eventual impasse: he and Secretary of War Eaton resigned, so that Calhoun men would also resign. Jackson appointed a new Cabinet, and sought again to reward Van Buren by appointing him Minister to Great Britain. Vice President Calhoun, as President of the Senate, cast the deciding vote against the appointment--and made a martyr of Van Buren. The "Little Magician" was elected Vice President on the Jacksonian ticket in 1832, and won the Presidency in 1836. Van Buren devoted his Inaugural Address to a discourse upon the American experiment as an example to the rest of the world. The country was prosperous, but less than three months later the panic of 1837 punctured the prosperity. Basically the trouble was the 19th-century cyclical economy of "boom and bust," which was following its regular pattern, but Jackson's financial measures contributed to the crash. His destruction of the Second Bank of the United States had removed restrictions upon the inflationary practices of some state banks; wild speculation in lands, based on easy bank credit, had swept the West. To end this speculation, Jackson in 1836 had issued a Specie Circular requiring that lands be purchased with hard money--gold or silver. In 1837 the panic began. Hundreds of banks and businesses failed. Thousands lost their lands. For about five years the United States was wracked by the worst depression thus far in its history. Programs applied decades later to alleviate economic crisis eluded both Van Buren and his opponents. Van Buren's remedy--continuing Jackson's deflationary policies--only deepened and prolonged the depression. Declaring that the panic was due to recklessness in business and overexpansion of credit, Van Buren devoted himself to maintaining the solvency of the national Government. He opposed not only the creation of a new Bank of the United States but also the placing of Government funds in state banks. He fought for the establishment of an independent treasury system to handle Government transactions. As for Federal aid to internal improvements, he cut off expenditures so completely that the Government even sold the tools it had used on public works. Inclined more and more to oppose the expansion of slavery, Van Buren blocked the annexation of Texas because it assuredly would add to slave territory--and it might bring war with Mexico. Defeated by the Whigs in 1840 for reelection, he was an unsuccessful candidate for President on the Free Soil ticket in 1848. He died in 1862.

  • What was Van Buren’s greatest contribution to the nation?

    thx 4 ur help its 4 a paper

    Van Buren was the first president born after the Declaration of Independence was signed. He was the first president born as a citizen of the U.S. The term "It's O.K." came from Van Buren, who grew up in Kinderhook, New York. After he went into politics, he became known by the nickname "Old Kinderhook." Soon people were saying "Is it OK?" reffering to Van Buren, and the word okay was derived. Van Buren was the only incumbent President to run for re-election without a vice-presidential running-mate. Van Buren was a third cousin twice removed to Theodore Roosevelt. Van Buren made three unsuccessful bids for reelection. His autobiography does not mention his wife once. Van Buren took $100,000, the sum of his salary as president over four years, in a lump sum at the end of his term. The only president of Dutch ancestry, Van Buren and his wife spoke Dutch at home. Martin Van Buren's favorite foods were oysters, doughnuts, raisins, figs, and apples. Van Buren owned two tiger cubs as pets. Van Buren's favorite sport was riding horses. He was named after his grandfather, Martin Van Buren. When he was Vice President, he presided over the Senate with loaded pistols! in a bold step, Van Buren reversed Andrew Jackson's policies and sought peace at home, as well as abroad. Instead of settling a financial dispute between American citizens and the Mexican government by force, Van Buren wanted to seek a diplomatic solution. Also, in August 1837, Van Buren denied Texas' formal request to join the United States. "Van Buren gave a higher priority to sectional harmony than to territorial expansion" ("Martin Van Buren" 103-114). In the case of the ship Amistad, Van Buren sided with the Spanish Government to return the kidnapped slaves. Also, he oversaw the "Trail of Tears", which involved the expulsion of the Cherokee tribe in 1838 from Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, and South Carolina to the Oklahoma territory. Van Buren was determined to avoid war. "Van Buren entered the presidency not only as the heir to Jackson's policies, Jefferson's ideology of limited government, and Smith's principles of political economy, but also an accomplished politician with a statesmanlike vision of the dangers facing the nation. This complex heritage would shape the new president's response to the multiple challenges of 1837."("Martin Van Buren" 103-114)[citation needed] In 1839, Joseph Smith, Jr., the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement visited Van Buren to plead for the U.S. to help roughly 20,000 Mormon settlers of Independence, Missouri (which would become the hometown of future President Harry S Truman), who were forced from the state during the 1838 Mormon War there. The Governor of Missouri, Lilburn Boggs, had issued an executive order on October 27, 1838, known as the "Extermination Order". It authorized troops to use force against Mormons to "exterminate or drive [them] from the state".[10][11] In 1839, after moving to Illinois, Smith and his party appealed to congressman and to President Van Buren to intercede for the Mormons. According to Smith's grand-nephew, Van Buren said to Smith, "Your cause is just, but I can do nothing for you; if I take up for you I shall lose the vote of Missouri."[12][citation needed] Van Buren took the blame for hard times, as Whigs ridiculed him as Martin Van Ruin. Van Buren's rather elegant personal style was also an easy target for Whig attacks, such as the Gold Spoon Oration. State elections of 1837 and 1838 were disastrous for the Democrats, and the partial economic recovery in 1838 was offset by a second commercial crisis in that year. Nevertheless, Van Buren controlled his party and was unanimously renominated by the Democrats in 1840. The revolt against Democratic rule led to the election of William Henry Harrison, the Whig candidate.

  • What were the major accomplishments during the presidency of Martin Van Buren?

    he was the 8 th presindent and the first presindent to be born in america wich makes him the first true president that was born a citizen

    MARTIN VAN BUREN, the eighth Fresident of the United States, was born at Kinderbook, N. Y., December 5, 1782. He died at the same place, July 24, 1862. His body rests in the cemetery at Kinderhook. Above it is a plain granite shaft, fifteen feet high, bearing a simple inscription about half-way up on one face. The lot is unfenced, unbordered or unbounded by shrub or flower. There is but little in the life of Martin Van Buren of romantic interest. He fought no battles, engaged in no wild adventures. Though his life was stormy in political and intellectual conflicts, and he gained many signal victories, his days passed uneventful in those incidents which give zest to biography. His ancestors, as his name indicates, were of Dutch origin, and were among the earliest emigrants from Holland to the banks of the Hudson. His father was a farmer, residing in the old town of Kinderhook. His mother, also of Dutch lineage, was a woman of superior intelligence and exemplary piety. He was decidedly a precocious boy, developing unusual activity, vigor and strength of mind. At the age of fourteen, he had finished his academic studies in his native village, and commenced the study of law. As he had not a collegiate education, seven years of study in a law-office were required of him before he could be admitted to the Bar, Inspired with a lofty ambition, and conscions of his powers, he pursued his studies with indefatigable industry. After spending six years in an office in his native village, he went to the city of New York, and prosecuted his studies for the seventh year. In 1803, Mr. Van Buren, then twenty-one years of age, commenced the practice of law in his native village. The great conflict between the Federal and Republican parties was then at its height. Mr. Van Buren was from the beginning a politician. He had, perhaps, imbibed that spirit while listening to the many discussions which had been carried on in his father's hotel. He was in cordial sympathy with Jefferson, and earnestly and eloquently espoused the cause of State Rights, though at that time the Federal party held the supremacy both in his town and State. His success and increasing reputation led him after six years of practice to remove to Hudson, the county seat of his county. Here he spent seven years, constantly gaining strength by contending in the courts with some of the ablest men who have adorned the Bar of his State. Just before leaving Kinderhook for Hudson, Mr. Van Buren married a lady alike distinguished for beauty and accomplishments. After twelve short years she sank into the grave, a victim of consumption, leaving her husband and four sons to weep over her loss. For twenty-five years, Mr. Van Buren was an earnest, successful, assiduous lawyer. The record of those years is barren in items of public interest. In 1812, when thirty years of age, be was chosen to the State Senate, and gave his strenuous support to Mr. Madison's administration. In 1815, he was appointed Attorney-General, and the next year moved to Albany, the capital of the State. While he was acknowledged as one of the most prominent leaders of the Democratic party, he had the moral courage to avow that true democracy did not require that "universal suffrage" which admits the vile, the degraded, the ignorant, to the right of governing tile State. In true consistency with his democratic principles, he contended that, while the path leading to the privilege of voting should be open to every man without distinction, no one should be invested with that sacred prerogative unless he were in some degree qualified for it by intelligence, virtue, and some property interests in the welfare of the State. In 1821 he was elected a member of the United States Senate, and in the same year he took a seat in the convention to revise the Constitution of his native State. His course in this convention secured the approval of men of all parties. No one could doubt the singleness of his endeavors to promote the interests of all classes in the community. In the Senate of the United States, he rose at once to a conspicuous position as an active and useful legislator. In 1827, John Quincy Adams being then in the Presidential chair, Mr. Van Buren was re-elected to the Senate. He had been from the beginning a determined opposer of the administration, adopting the "State Rights" view in opposition to what was deenied the Federal proclivities of Mr. Adams. Soon after this, in 1828, he was chosen Governor of the State of New York, and accordingly resigned his seat in the Senate. Probably no one in the United States contributed so much towards ejecting John Q. Adams from the Presidential chair, and placing in it Andrew Jackson, as did Martin Van Buren. Whether entitled to the reputation or not, he certainly was regarded throughout the United States as one of the most skillful, sagacious and cunning of politicians. It was supposed that no one knew so well as he how to touch the secret springs of action, how to pull all the wires to put his machinery in motion, and how to organize a political army which would secretly and stealthily accomplish the most gigantic results. By these powers it is said that he outwitted Mr. Adams, Mr. Clay, and Mr. Webster, and secured results which few then thought could be accomplished. When Andrew Jackson was elected President he appointed Mr. Van Buren Secretary of State. This position he resigned in 1831, and was immediately appointed Minister to England, where he went the same autumn. The Senate, however, when it met, refused to ratify the nomination, and he returned home, apparently untroubled. Later he was nominated Vice-President in the place of Calhoun, at the re-election of President Jackson, and with smiles for all and frowns for none, he took his place at the head of that Senate which had refused to confirm his nomination as ambassador. His rejection by the Senate roused all the zeal of President Jackson in behalf of his repudiated favorite; and this, probably, more than any other cause secured his elevation to the chair of the Chief Executive. On the 20th of May, 1836, Mr. Van Buren received the Democratic nomination to succeed Gen. Jackson as President of the United States. He was elected by a handsome majority, to the delight of the retiring President. "Leaving New York out of the canvass," says Mr. Parton, "the election of Mr. Van Buren to the Presidency was as much the act of Gen. Jackson as though the Constitution had conferred upon him the power to appoint a successor." His administration was filled with exciting events. The insurrection in Canada, which threatened to involve this country in war with England, the agitation of the slavery question, and finally the great commercial panic which spread over the country, all were trials of his wisdom. The financial distress was attributed to the management of the Democratic party, and brought the President into such disfavor that he failed of re-election, and on the 4th of March, 1841, he retired from the presidency. With the exception of being nominated for the Presidency by the "Free Soil" Democrats in 1848, Mr. Van Buren lived quietly upon his estate until his death. He had ever been a prudent man, of frugal habits, and, living within his income, had now fortunately a competence for his declining years. From his fine estate at Lindenwald, he still exerted a powerful influence upon the politics of the country. From this time until his death, on the 24th of July, 1862, at the age of eighty years, he resided at Lindenwald, a gentleman of leisure, of culture and wealth, enjoying in a healthy old age probably far more happiness than he had before experienced amid the stormy scenes of his active life. atp

  • President Van buren?

    Can someone please help me find 2 atrifacts about President Van Buren

    Van buren was married, it was James Buchanan who was the bachelor. If you want more information about Van Buren go to http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presid... and you will find all kinds of info and links. Also, there is a another good website http://www.ipl.org/div/potus/mvanburen.h...

  • Negative things about martin van buren?

    THIS IS NOT HOMEWORK! i am asking out of curiosty. negative things about martin van buren's presidency, in detail please.

    Van Buren's basic problem in terms of history was that not a whole lot happened during his watch. He had the unfortunate timing of coming to office in time for a big recession. That was a time when the federal government couldn't do a heck of a lot about economic problems -- no Federal Reserve back then -- so Van Buren had to sit and watch. Do a search for "Van Buren biography" to get more information.

  • Was martin van buren from the same political party was andrew jackson?

    also what was the significance of him continuing jackson's policy of indian removal?

    Van Buren and Jackson were both Democrats. http://us-presidents.findthedata.org/com... Van Buren created controversy by his policy of moving Native Americans to Indian Reservations. In 1835 some leaders of the Cherokee tribe signed the Treaty of New Echota. This agreement ceded all rights to their traditional lands to the United States. In return the tribe was granted land in the Indian Territory. Although the majority of the Cherokees opposed this agreement they were forced to make the journey by General Winfield Scott and his soldiers. In October 1838 about 15,000 Cherokees began what was later to be known as the Trail of Tears. Most of the Cherokees travelled the 800 mile journey on foot. As a result of serious mistakes made by the Federal agents who guided them to their new land, they suffered from hunger and the cold weather and an estimated 4,000 people died on the journey. The soldiers refused permission for the Cherokee to stop and bury family members and warned them they would be shot if they tried to do this. They were therefore forced to carry the dead bodies until they reached that night's camp. Van Buren claimed in Congress that: "The measures of the Removal have had the happiest effect... the Cherokee moved without apparent reluctance."

  • Presidents Jackson and Van Buren Help?

    How successful were Presidents Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren in maintaining the coalition between the Democrats and the poor, why did the Whigs win in 1840?

    Jackson was considered a man of the people. Van Buren was his successor and was not seen as a man of the people. And there was a depression which was blamed on him. Harrison was a rich man too but the "born in a log cabin" tag helped him do well with the people. Actually Van Buren didn't do that badly in popular vote but the lost horribly in the electoral college because there were 3 men in the race.

  • If you were Martin Van Buren?

    What was important about him and if you were him what would your stance be on the question, should andrew jackson be impeached? around 1832, the nullification crisis

    --Should andrew jackson be impeached?No His legacy is now seen as mixed, as a protector of popular democracy and individual liberty, checkered by his support for Indian removal and slavery.-----------Martin Van Buren December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862) was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. Before his presidency, he served as the eighth Vice President (1833–1837) and the 10th Secretary of State under Andrew Jackson. He was a key organizer of the Democratic Party, a dominant figure in the Second Party System, and the first president who was not of British (i.e. English, Welsh, Scottish, or Irish) descent—his ancestry was Dutch. He was the first president to be born an American citizen (his predecessors were born British subjects before the American Revolution), and is also the only president not to have spoken English as a first language, having grown up speaking Dutch. Moreover, he was the first president from New York. Van Buren was the third president to serve only one term, after John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams. He also was one of the central figures in developing modern political organizations. As Andrew Jackson's Secretary of State and then Vice President, he was a key figure in building the organizational structure for Jacksonian democracy, particularly in New York State. However, as a president, his administration was largely characterized by the economic hardship of his time, the Panic of 1837. Between the bloodless Aroostook War and the Caroline Affair, relations with Britain and its colonies in Canada also proved to be strained. Whether these were directly his fault, Van Buren was voted out of office after four years, with a close popular vote but a rout in the electoral vote. In 1848, he ran for president on a third-party ticket, the Free Soil Party. Martin Van Buren is one of only two people, the other being Thomas Jefferson, to serve as Secretary of State, Vice President and President. -------------------- He actually was impeached, but he never was convicted of the charges brought against him. He did not break federal laws, and the charges they brought against him were false. ------------------Jackson symbolized what Americans perceived (or wished) themselves to be--defiant, bold, independent. He was someone with whom they could identify. Thus, Jackson was reelected by an overwhelming majority and was able to transfer that loyalty to his successor, a man who hardly lived up to the image. But all this left a curious question unanswered. Was this new democracy voting for leaders whose programs they favored or, rather, for images that could be altered and manipulated almost at will? The answer was essential for the future of American politics, and the election of 1840 gave the nation a clue. http://www.historyteacher.net/AHAP/WebQu... Andrew Jackson's Presidential Accomplishments •Destroyed the corrupt Bank of the United States leaving politician Henry Clay and bank owner John Bittle high and dry. This also strenghthened the U.S. Economy and enriched many states who were going without funds •Issued the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which lead to the evacuation of the Indian's from land that the United States government now claims. •Paid off the National War Debt from the War of 1812. (Which he served as a general in, and defended Louisiana, killing 2,000 enemies and losing only 24 allies) Answer You're thinking of Andrew Johnson who was impeached for his conciliatory policies towards the South, his hurry to reincorporate the former Confederates back into the union, and his vetoes of civil rights bills. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_was_Andrew...

  • Martin Van Buren, the 8th President?

    I have a Presidents' Project to do for my history class. We picked presidents at random and I got Martin Van Buren. I have background information on him, but my assignment is to

    While the Indian Removal Act was passed in 1830, under little Van's predecessor Andrew Jackson, the actual collection and removal of the Cherokee was in 1838. This removal is better known as the Trail of Tears. The commander in chief of the soldiers who moved the Cherokee was Martin Van Buren. The officer in command of rounding up the people was Winfield Scott, though he was not present during the actual removal. The government ordered him north to deal with the Aroostook War, a border dispute between Canada and New York, brought on by a conflict over a boat called the Aroostook, crossing the imaginary line down the middle of the Niagara River. General Scott was well known in the area from his service during the War of 1812. General Scott's memoirs are an interesting source. He served in various capacities throughout the early national period, from Lundy's Lane in the war of 1812, to the Blackhawk War, Seminole war, Aroostook war, Cherokee Removal, US Mexico war, and chief of staff at the beginning of the Civil War. His memoirs are also the source of a rather unfortunate and flippant dismissal of the situation of the Cherokee, which has given him a very bad smell with more recent historians. I personally think he was trying to be literary, but he chose the wrong word and the wrong attitude. General Scott was also the second man promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General (Three stars). The first had been George Washington during the Quasi War. John Marshall returned with a treaty with the French in early 1800, after Adams had lost the election, but before the Jefferson inaugural, so the army wasn't actually mobilized for this conflict with the French. General Washington had died on December 17, 1799, so he wasn't actually called up either. Also, if you have seen the movie Amistad, it was Van Buren's administration that is portrayed in that film. It's been a while since I've seen it, so I don't remember seeing him riding in a coach. In the 1840 election campaign, the Harrison campaign focused on a story that the President had a fancy English coach he rode around in. The slogan, referring to General Harrison was "In English coaches he's no rider, but he can fight and drink hard cider". I also wouldn't neglect that Van Buren is really more the father of the Democratic Party than Jackson. Jackson was the example, and his principles are the principles of the party in those days, but it was little Van who actually put the coalition together and got the ball rolling while he was in the Senate.

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